Lilith From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the demoness Lilith. For other uses, see Lilith (disambiguation). Lilith (1892) by John Collier in Southport Atkinson Art Gallery Lilith (Hebrew: לילית‎) is a character in Jewish mythology, found earliest in the Babylonian Talmud, which is generally thought to be related to a class of female demons Līlīṯu in Mesopotamian texts. However, Lowell K. Handy (1997) notes that “Very little information has been found relating to the Akkadian and Babylonian view of these demons. Two sources of information previously used to define Lilith are both suspect.” [1] The two problematic sources are the Gilgamesh appendix and the Arshlan-Tash amulets below.[2] In Jewish folklore, from the 8th-10th Century Alphabet of Ben Sira onwards Lilith becomes Adam’s first wife, who was created at the same time and from the same earth as Adam. This legend was greatly developed during the Middle Ages, in the tradition of Aggadic midrashim, the Zohar and Jewish mysticism.[3] In the 13th Century writings of Rabbi Isaac ben Jacob ha-Kohen, for example, Lilith left Adam after she refused to become subservient to him and then would not return to the Garden of Eden after she mated with archangel Samael.[4] The resulting Lilith legend is still commonly used as source material in modern Western culture, literature, occultism, fantasy and horror. Contents [hide] * 1 Etymology * 2 Mesopotamian mythology o 2.1 The spirit in the tree in the Gilgamesh Epic o 2.2 The bird-foot woman in the Burney Relief o 2.3 The Arslan Tash amulets o 2.4 The vardat lilitu demons * 3 Siegmund Hurwitz o 3.1 Lilû, father of Gilgamesh o 3.2 Lilitû demons o 3.3 Lamashtû o 3.4 Gallû and Alû o 3.5 Lilitû, Inanna’s hand * 4 Lilith in the Bible o 4.1 Hebrew text o 4.2 Greek version o 4.3 Latin Bible o 4.4 English versions * 5 Jewish tradition o 5.1 Dead Sea Scrolls o 5.2 Talmud o 5.3 Shedim cults o 5.4 Folk tradition o 5.5 Kabbalah + 5.5.1 Adam and Lilith + 5.5.2 Samael and Lilith + 5.5.3 The Two Liliths + 5.5.4 Lilith as Qliphah * 6 Greco-Roman mythology * 7 Arabic mythology * 8 Lilith in the Classical German period * 9 Lilith in the Victorian period * 10 In modern occultism o 10.1 Ceremonial magic o 10.2 Modern Luciferianism o 10.3 Wicca o 10.4 Astrology o 10.5 Western mystery tradition o 10.6 Feminist Theology * 11 Popular culture * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 References * 15 External links [edit] Etymology The semitic root L-Y-L liyl in Hebrew, as layl in Arabic, means “night”. Talmudic and Yiddish use of Lilith follows Hebrew. In Akkadian the terms lili and līlītu mean spirits. Some uses of līlītu are listed in The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CAD, 1956, L.190), in Wolfram von Soden’s Akkadisches Handwörterbuch (AHw, p.553), and Reallexikon der Assyriologie (RLA, p.47).[5] The Sumerian she-demons lili have no etymologic relation to Sumerian lilu, “evening.”[6] Archibald Sayce (1882)[7] considered that Hebrew Lilith Hebrew: לילית‎; and Akkadian: līlītu are from proto-Semitic. Charles Fossey (1902)[8] has this literally translating to “female night being/demon”, although cuneiform inscriptions where Līlīt and Līlītu refers to disease-bearing wind spirits exist.[citation needed] Another possibility is association not with “night”, but with “wind”, thus identifying the Akkadian Lil-itu as a loan from the Sumerian lil, “air” — specifically from Ninlil, “lady air”, goddess of the south wind (and wife of Enlil) — and itud, “moon”.[citation needed] [edit] Mesopotamian mythology Although widely repeated in secondary and tertiary sources the possible references to Lilith in Mesopotamian mythology are now disputed: [edit] The spirit in the tree in the Gilgamesh Epic Samuel Noah Kramer (1932, published 1938)[9] translated ki-sikil-lil-la-ke as Lilith in “Tablet XII” of the Epic of Gilgamesh dated c.600 BCE. “Tablet XII” is not part of the Epic of Gilgamesh, but is an later Akkadian translation of the latter part of the Sumerian poem of Bilgames and the Netherworld.[10] The ki-sikil-lil-la-ke is associated with a serpent and an zu bird,[11] In Bilgames and the Netherworld, a huluppu tree (willow) grows in Inanna’s garden in Uruk, whose wood she plans to use to build a new throne. After ten years of growth, she comes to harvest it and finds a serpent living at its base, a Zu bird raising young in its crown, and that a ki-sikil-lil-la-ke made a house in its trunk. Bilgames/Gilgamesh is said to have smitten the snake, and then the zu bird flew away to the mountains with its young, while the ki-sikil-lil-la-ke fearfully destroys its house and runs for the forest.[12][13][14] Kramer’s identification is repeated without question or justification by Manfred Hutter in the article on Lilith in Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible (1999)[15] Suggested translations for the Tablet XII spirit in the tree include ki-sikil as “sacred place”, lil as “spirit”, and lil-la-ke as “water spirit”.[16] but also simply “owl”, given that the lil is building a home in the trunk of the tree.[17] A connection between the Gilgamesh ki-sikil-lil-la-ke and the Jewish Lilith was rejected by Dietrich Opitz (1932)[18] and other scholars, finally being rejected on textual grounds by Sergio Ribichini (1978).[19] [edit] The bird-foot woman in the Burney Relief Kramer’s translation of the Gilgamesh fragment was used by Henri Frankfort (1937)[20] and Emil Kraeling (1937)[21] to support identification of a woman with bird-feet in the Burney Relief as related to Lilith, but this too is rejected by more recent scholarship.[22] [edit] The Arslan Tash amulets Theodor Gaster (1942)[23] mistakenly identified an incantantion in the Arslan Tash amulets as a pre-Jewish reference to Lilith, but Torczyner (1947)[24] identified the amulets as a Jewish source. [edit] The vardat lilitu demons The word lilu means spirit in Akkadian, and the male lili and female lilitu are found in incantation texts from Nippur, Babylonia c600BCE in both singular and plural forms.[25] Among the spirits the vardat lilitu, or maiden spirit bears some comparison with later Talmudic legends of Lilith.[26][27][28][29] A lili is related to witchcraft in the Sumerian incantation Text 313.[30] [edit] Siegmund Hurwitz Much of the popular information found in non-academic sources regarding Lilith is taken from reprints of out-of-copyright works which are now outdated[31], for example Moses Gaster (1880)[32], R. Campbell Thompson (1908)[33], W. O. E. Oesterley (1930) [34], , and confuses Jewish and Assyrian sources. The following material in this section of the article, in particular secondary citation from Siegmund Hurwitz, requires verification and replacement with primary academic sources: According to Siegmund Hurwitz the figure of Lilith first appeared in a class of wind and storm demons or spirits as Lilitu, in Sumer, circa 4000 BC.[citation needed] The phonetic name Lilith is traditionally thought[by whom?] to have originated in Ancient Israel, and to have pre-dated at least 700 BC.[citation needed][35] Akkad, who were the earliest known Semitic speakers, and Sumer, who were the earliest civilizations inhabiting Mesopotamia, developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis with widespread bilingualism.[36] The bilateral influence of Sumerian and Akkadian is evident in all areas,[36] including syncretism between their gods, where each adopted the other’s deities.[37] In Sumerian, Lilith was referred to as Ki-sikil-lil-la-ke, and, in Akkadian, it was Ardat-lili.[citation needed][38] The Assyrian and Babylonian cultures descended from these early cultures. [edit] Lilû, father of Gilgamesh Another proposed connection to Lilith is on the Sumerian king list, where Gilgamesh’s father is named as Lilû.[39][40] Little is known of Lilû, and he was said to interfere with women in their sleep[citation needed] and had functions of an incubus[citation needed], while Lilitû appeared to men in their erotic dreams.[citation needed][41][42][43] Such qualities as lalu, or wandering about, and lulu, or lasciviousness, from Akkadian (Semitic) language have been associated as sources for the names Lila and Lilitû.[citation needed],[44] but some Sumerologists[who?] say Lilû is purely Sumerian.[citation needed][39] [edit] Lilitû demons The Assyrian lilitû were said to prey upon children and women and were described as associated with lions, storms, desert, and disease.[citation needed] Early portrayals of such demons are known as having Zu bird talons for feet and wings.[citation needed][45] They were highly sexually predatory towards men but were unable to copulate normally. They were thought to dwell in waste, desolate, and desert places. Like the Sumerian Dimme, a male wind demon named Pazuzu was thought to be effective against them.[citation needed][46][47] Lilith’s epithet was “the beautiful maiden”.[citation needed] She was described as having no milk in her breasts and as unable to bear any children.[citation needed][42][48] Other storm and night demons from a similar class are recorded from Akkadian texts[which?] around this period. The Ardat-lili[citation needed] is from Ardatû[citation needed], which is a young unmarried woman or maiden, also sometimes a title of prostitutes, and lilitû.[citation needed][49] These “maiden liltû” would come to men in their sleep and beget children from them.[citation needed] Sick men would also be described as being seized by Ardat-lili[citation needed][41] Their male counterparts, similar to an incubus, were the Irdû-lili[citation needed][50] These demons were originally storm and wind demons; however, later etymology made them into night demons.[citation needed][51] [edit] Lamashtû Lamashtû or Labartu (in Sumerian Dimme) was a very similar Mesopotamian demon to Lilitû , and Lilith seems to have inherited many of Lamashtû’s myths.[citation needed][52] She was considered a demi-goddess and daughter of Anu, the sky god.[53] Many incantations against her mention her status as a daughter of heaven and her exercising her free will over infants. This makes her different from the rest of the demons in Mesopotamia. Unlike her demonic peers, Lamashtû was not instructed by the gods to do her malevolence; she did it on her own accord. She was said[who?] to seduce men, harm pregnant women, mothers, and neonates, kill foliage, and drink blood and was a cause of disease, sickness, and death. Some incantations[which?] describe her as “seven witches”.[54] The space between her legs is as a scorpion, corresponding to the astrological sign of Scorpio. (Scorpio rules the genitals and sex organs.)[citation needed] Her head is that of a lion, she has Anzu bird feet like Lilitû[citation needed], her breasts are suckled by a pig and a dog, and she rides the back of a donkey.[citation needed][55] Other texts[which?] mention Lamashtû as the hand of Inanna/Ishtar in place of Lilitû and Ardat-lili[citation needed]. [edit] Gallû and Alû Two other Mesopotamian demons have a close relation to Lilitû: Gallû and Alû[citation needed].[56] Alû was originally an asexual demon, who took on female attributes, but later became a male demon.[citation needed] Alû liked to roam the streets like a stray dog at night and creep into people’s bedrooms as they slept to terrify them.[citation needed] He was described as being half-human and half-devil. He appears in Jewish lore[where?] as Ailo[citation needed]; here, he is used as one of Lilith’s secret names[citation needed]. In other texts[which?], Ailo is a daughter of Lilith that has had intercourse with a man . The other demon, Gallû, is of the Utukkû group[citation needed]. Gallû’s name, like Utukkû, was also used as a general term[where?] for multiple demons.[citation needed][57] Later[when?], Gallû appears as Gello, Gylo, or Gyllou in Greco-Byzantine mythology[which?] as a child-stealing and child-killing demon[citation needed]. This figure was, likewise, adapted by the Jews as Gilû and was also considered a secret name of Lilith’s.[citation needed][58] [edit] Lilitû, Inanna’s hand Stephen Langdon (1914)[59] claims that Babylonian texts depict Lilitû as the sacred prostitute of the goddess Ishtar, the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna. Hurwitz similarly claims that older Sumerian accounts assert that Lilitû is called the handmaiden of Inanna or “hand of Inanna” . The Sumerian texts[which?] state, “Inanna has sent the beautiful, unmarried, and seductive prostitute Lilitû out into the fields and streets in order to lead men astray.” That is why Lilitû is called the “hand of Inanna” .[60][61] [edit] Lilith in the Bible There is an ongoing scholarly debate as to whether the concept of Lilith occurs in the Bible. The only possible occurrence is in the Book of Isaiah 34:13-15, describing the desolation of Edom, where the Hebrew word liyliyth appears in a list of eight unclean animals, some of which may have demonic associations. Since the word liyliyth is a hapax legomenon in the Hebrew Bible and the other seven terms in the list are better documented, the reading of scholars and translators is often guided by a decision about the complete list of eight creatures as a whole: Isaiah 34:13 Thorns shall grow over its strongholds, nettles and thistles in its fortresses. It shall be the haunt of jackals, an abode for ostriches. 14 And wild animals shall meet with hyenas; the wild goat shall cry to his fellow; indeed, there the night bird (liylith) settles and finds for herself a resting place. 15 There the owl nests and lays and hatches and gathers her young in her shadow; indeed, there the hawks are gathered, each one with her mate. (ESV) [edit] Hebrew text Hebrew: וּפָגְשׁוּ צִיִּים אֶת-אִיִּים, וְשָׂעִיר עַל-רֵעֵהוּ יִקְרָא; אַךְ-שָׁם הִרְגִּיעָה לִּילִית, וּמָצְאָה לָהּ מָנוֹח Hebrew (ISO 259): pagšu ṣiyyim et-ʾiyyim w-saʿir ʿal-rēʿhu yiqra; ʾak-šam hirgiʿah lilit u-maṣʾah lah manoḫ 34:14 “And shall-meet desert creatures (particle) jackals the goat he-calls his-fellow liyliyth she-rests and she-finds rest[62] 34:15 there she-shall-nest the great-owl, and she-lays-(eggs), and she-hatches, and she-gathers under her-shadow: hawks also they-gather, every one with its mate. Eberhard Schrader (1875)[63] and Moritz Abraham Levy (1885)[64] suggest that Lilith was a goddess of the night, known also by the Jewish exiles in Babylon. Schrader and Levy’s view is therefore partly dependent on a later dating of Deutero-Isaiah to the 6th century BC, and the presence of Jews in Babylon which would coincide with the possible references to the Līlītu in Babylonian demonology. However this view is challenged by some modern research such as by Judit M. Blair (2009) who considers that the context indicates unclean animals.[65] [edit] Greek version The Septuagint translates the reference into Greek as onokentauros, apparently for lack of a better word, since also the se’irim, “satyrs”, earlier in the verse are translated with daimon onokentauros. The “wild beasts of the island and the desert” are omitted altogether, and the “crying to his fellow” is also done by the daimon onokentauros.[66] [edit] Latin Bible The early 5th-century Vulgate translated the same word as Lamia.[67][68] et occurrent daemonia onocentauris et pilosus clamabit alter ad alterum ibi cubavit lamia et invenit sibi requiem —Isaiah (Isaias Propheta) 34.14, Vulgate According to vampirologist Montague Summers (1928), this particular species of owl is associated with the vampiric Strix of Roman legend.[69] [edit] English versions Wyclif’s Bible (1395) preserves the Latin rendering Lamia: Isa 34:15 Lamya schal ligge there, and foond rest there to hir silf. The Bishops’ Bible of Matthew Parker (1568) from the Latin: Isa 34:14 there shall the Lamia lye and haue her lodgyng. The Geneva Bible of William Whittington (1587) from the Hebrew: Isa 34:14 and the shricheowle shall rest there, and shall finde for her selfe a quiet dwelling. Then the King James Version of the Bible (1611): Isa 34:14 “The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellow; the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest.” The “screech owl” translation of the KJV is, together with the “owl” (yanšup, probably a water bird) in 34:11 and the “great owl” (qippoz, properly a snake) of 34:15, an attempt to render the passage by choosing suitable animals for difficult-to-translate Hebrew words. Later translations include: * night-owl (Young, 1898) * night-spectre (Rotherham, Emphasized Bible, 1902) * night monster (ASV, 1901; JPS 1917, NASB, 1995) * vampires (Moffatt Translation, 1922) * night hag (RSV, 1947) * Lilith (Jerusalem Bible, 1966) * lilith (New American Bible, 1970) * Lilith (NRSV, 1989) * Lilith (The Message (Bible), Peterson, 1993) * night creature (NIV, 1978; NKJV, 1982; NLT, 1996, TNIV) * nightjar (New World Translation, 1984) * night bird (English Standard Version, 2001) [edit] Jewish tradition [edit] Dead Sea Scrolls The appearance of Lilith in the Dead Sea Scrolls is somewhat more contentious, with one indisputable reference in the Song for a Sage (4Q510-511) and a promising additional allusion found by A. Baumgarten in The Seductress (4Q184).[70] The first and irrefutable Lilith reference in the Song occurs in 4Q510, fragment 1: And I, the Instructor, proclaim His glorious splendour so as to frighten and to te[rrify] all the spirits of the destroying angels, spirits of the bastards, demons, Lilith, howlers, and [desert dwellers…] and those which fall upon men without warning to lead them astray from a spirit of understanding and to make their heart and their […] desolate during the present dominion of wickedness and predetermined time of humiliations for the sons of lig[ht], by the guilt of the ages of [those] smitten by iniquity – not for eternal destruction, [bu]t for an era of humiliation for transgression. Akin to Isaiah 34:14, this liturgical text both cautions against the presence of supernatural malevolence and assumes familiarity with Lilith; distinct from the biblical text, however, this passage does not function under any socio-political agenda, but instead serves in the same capacity as An Exorcism (4Q560) and Songs to Disperse Demons (11Q11) insomuch that it comprises incantations—comparable to the Arslan Tash relief examined above—used to “help protect the faithful against the power of these spirits.” The text is thus, to a community “deeply involved in the realm of demonology”, an exorcism hymn.[citation needed] Another text discovered at Qumran, conventionally associated with the Book of Proverbs, credibly also could appropriate the Lilith tradition in its description of a precarious, winsome woman—The Seductress (4Q184). The ancient poem—dated to the first century BC but plausibly much older—describes a dangerous woman and consequently warns against encounters with her. Customarily, the woman depicted in this text is equated to the “strange woman” of Proverbs 2 and 5, and for good reason; the parallels are instantly recognizable: Her house sinks down to death, And her course leads to the shades. All who go to her cannot return And find again the paths of life. — Proverbs 2:18-19 Her gates are gates of death, and from the entrance of the house She sets out towards Sheol. None of those who enter there will ever return, And all who possess her will descend to the Pit. — 4Q184 However, what this association does not take into account are additional descriptions of the “Seductress” from Qumran that cannot be found attributed to the “strange woman” of Proverbs; namely, her horns and her wings: “a multitude of sins is in her wings.” The word “seductress” here does not refer literally to “prostitute” or at the very least, the representation of one, but one who tempts men into sin. The sort of individual with whom that text’s community would have been familiar. The “Seductress” of the Qumran text, conversely, could not possibly have represented an existent social threat given the constraints of this particular ascetic community. Instead, the Qumran text uses the imagery of Proverbs to explicate a much broader, supernatural threat – the threat of the demoness Lilith.[citation needed] [edit] Talmud Although references to Lilith in the Talmud are sparse, these passages provide the most comprehensive insight into the demoness yet seen in Judaic literature, which some speculate to echo Lilith’s purported Mesopotamian origins and prefigure her future as the perceived exegetical enigma of the Genesis account. Recalling the Lilith we have seen, Talmudic allusions to Lilith illustrate her essential wings and long hair, dating back to her earliest extant mention in Gilgamesh: “Rab Judah citing Samuel ruled: If an abortion had the likeness of Lilith its mother is unclean by reason of the birth, for it is a child but it has wings.” (Niddah 24b) “[Expounding upon the curses of womanhood] In a Baraitha it was taught: She grows long hair like Lilith, sits when making water like a beast, and serves as a bolster for her husband.” (‘Erubin 100b) Unique to the Talmud with regard to Lilith is her insalubrious carnality, alluded to in The Seductress but expanded upon here sans unspecific metaphors as the demoness assuming the form of a woman in order to sexually take men by force while they sleep: “R. Hanina said: One may not sleep in a house alone [in a lonely house], and whoever sleeps in a house alone is seized by Lilith.” (Shabbath 151b) Yet the most innovative perception of Lilith offered by the Talmud appears earlier in ‘Erubin, and is more than likely inadvertently responsible for the fate of the Lilith myth for centuries to come: “R. Jeremiah b. Eleazar further stated: In all those years [130 years after his expulsion from the Garden of Eden] during which Adam was under the ban he begot ghosts and male demons and female demons [or night demons], for it is said in Scripture: And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years and begot a son in own likeness, after his own image, from which it follows that until that time he did not beget after his own image… When he saw that through him death was ordained as punishment he spent a hundred and thirty years in fasting, severed connection with his wife for a hundred and thirty years, and wore clothes of fig on his body for a hundred and thirty years. – That statement [of R. Jeremiah] was made in reference to the semen which he emitted accidentally.” (‘Erubin 18b) Comparing ‘Erubin 18b and Shabbath 151b with the later passage from the Zohar: “She wanders about at night, vexing the sons of men and causing them to defile themselves (19b),” it appears clear that this Talmudic passage indicates such an adverse union between Adam and Lilith. [edit] Shedim cults A cult in Mesopotamia is said to be related to Lilith by early Jewish leaders. According to the hypotheses proposed by William F. Albright, Theodor H. Gaster, and others, the name Lilith already existed in 7th century BC. and Lilith retained her Shedim characteristics throughout the entire Jewish tradition.[71] Shedim is plural for “spirit” or “demon”. Figures that represent shedim are the shedu of Babylonian mythology. These figures were depicted as anthropomorphic, winged bulls, associated with wind. They were thought to guard palaces, cities, houses, and temples. In magical texts of that era, they could be either malevolent or benevolent.[72] The cult originated from Babylon, then spread to Canaan and eventually to Israel.[73] Human sacrifice was part of the practice and a sacrificial altar existed to the Shedim next to the Yahweh cult, although this practice was widely denounced by prophets who retained belief in Yahweh.[74] Shedim in Jewish thought and literature were portrayed as quite malevolent. Some writings contend that they are storm-demons. Their creation is presented in three contradicting Jewish tales. The first is that during Creation, God created the shedim, but did not create their bodies and forgot them on the Shabbat when he rested. The second is that they are descendants of demons in the form of serpents, and the last states that they are simply descendants of Adam & Lilith. Another story asserts that after the tower of Babel, some people were scattered and became Shedim, Ruchin, and Lilin.[citation needed] [edit] Folk tradition A Hebrew tradition exists in which an amulet is inscribed with the names of three angels (Senoy, Sansenoy, and Semangelof) and placed around the neck of newborn boys in order to protect them from the lilin until their circumcision.[75] The 8th-10th Century Alphabet of Ben Sira is considered to be the oldest form of the story of Lilith as Adam’s first wife. Whether this particular tradition is older is not known. Scholars tend to date the Alphabet between the 8th and 10th centuries AD. (The attribution to the sage Ben Sira is considered false, with the true author unknown.) The amulets used against Lilith that were thought to derive from this tradition are in fact, dated as being much older.[76] The concept of Eve having a predecessor is not exclusive to the Alphabet, and is not a new concept, as it can be found in Genesis Rabbah. However, the idea that Lilith was the predecessor is exclusive to the Alphabet. According to Gershom Scholem, the author of the Zohar, R. Moses de Leon, was aware of the folk tradition of Lilith. He was also aware of another story, possibly older, that may be conflicting.[77] The idea that Adam had a wife prior to Eve may have developed from an interpretation of the Book of Genesis and its dual creation accounts; while Genesis 2:22 describes God’s creation of Eve from Adam’s rib, an earlier passage, 1:27, already indicates that a woman had been made: “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.” The Alphabet text places Lilith’s creation after God’s words in Genesis 2:18 that “it is not good for man to be alone”; in this text God forms Lilith out of the clay from which he made Adam but she and Adam bicker. Lilith claims that since she and Adam were created in the same way they were equal and she refuses to submit to him: After God created Adam, who was alone, He said, ‘It is not good for man to be alone.’ He then created a woman for Adam, from the earth, as He had created Adam himself, and called her Lilith. Adam and Lilith immediately began to fight. She said, ‘I will not lie below,’ and he said, ‘I will not lie beneath you, but only on top. For you are fit only to be in the bottom position, while I am to be the superior one.’ Lilith responded, ‘We are equal to each other inasmuch as we were both created from the earth.’ But they would not listen to one another. When Lilith saw this, she pronounced the Ineffable Name and flew away into the air. Adam stood in prayer before his Creator: ‘Sovereign of the universe!’ he said, ‘the woman you gave me has run away.’ At once, the Holy One, blessed be He, sent these three angels Senoy, Sansenoy, and Semangelof, to bring her back. Said the Holy One to Adam, ‘If she agrees to come back, what is made is good. If not, she must permit one hundred of her children to die every day.’ The angels left God and pursued Lilith, whom they overtook in the midst of the sea, in the mighty waters wherein the Egyptians were destined to drown. They told her God’s word, but she did not wish to return. The angels said, ‘We shall drown you in the sea.’ ‘Leave me!’ she said. ‘I was created only to cause sickness to infants. If the infant is male, I have dominion over him for eight days after his birth, and if female, for twenty days.’ When the angels heard Lilith’s words, they insisted she go back. But she swore to them by the name of the living and eternal God: ‘Whenever I see you or your names or your forms in an amulet, I will have no power over that infant.’ She also agreed to have one hundred of her children die every day. Accordingly, every day one hundred demons perish, and for the same reason, we write the angels’ names on the amulets of young children. When Lilith sees their names, she remembers her oath, and the child recovers. The background and purpose of The Alphabet of Ben-Sira is unclear. It is a collection of stories about heroes of the Bible and Talmud, it may have been a collection of folk-tales, a refutation of Christian, Karaite, or other separatist movements; its content seems so offensive to contemporary Jews that it was even suggested that it could be an anti-Jewish satire,[78] although, in any case, the text was accepted by the Jewish mystics of medieval Germany. The Alphabet of Ben-Sira is the earliest surviving source of the story, and the conception that Lilith was Adam’s first wife became only widely known with the 17th century ‘‘Lexicon Talmudicum of Johannes Buxtorf. In the folk tradition that arose in the early Middle Ages Lilith, a dominant female demon, became identified with Asmodeus, King of Demons, as his queen.[79] Asmodeus was already well known by this time because of the legends about him in the Talmud. Thus, the merging of Lilith and Asmodeus was inevitable.[80] The second myth of Lilith grew to include legends about another world and by some accounts this other world existed side by side with this one, Yenne Velt is Yiddish for this described “Other World”. In this case Asmodeus and Lilith were believed to procreate demonic offspring endlessly and spread chaos at every turn.[81] Many disasters were blamed on both of them, causing wine to turn into vinegar, men to be impotent, women unable to give birth, and it was Lilith who was blamed for the loss of infant life. The presence of Lilith and her cohorts were considered very real at this time.[citation needed] Two primary characteristics are seen in these legends about Lilith: Lilith as the incarnation of lust, causing men to be led astray, and Lilith as a child-killing witch, who strangles helpless neonates. Although these two aspects of the Lilith legend seemed to have evolved separately, there is hardly a tale where she encompasses both roles.[81] But the aspect of the witch-like role that Lilith plays broadens her archetype of the destructive side of witchcraft. Such stories are commonly found among Jewish folklore.[81] [edit] Kabbalah Part of a series on Kabbalah 10 Sephirot Concepts[show] Ein Sof · Tzimtzum · Ohr Sephirot · Four Worlds Seder hishtalshelus Tree of Life · Merkavah Jewish angelic hierarchy Shemhamphorasch · Shechina Kelipot (Qliphoth) · Tikkun Sparks of holiness Messianic rectification Gilgul · Ibbur Kabbalistic astrology Gematria · Notarikon · Temurah Tzadik · Tzadikim Nistarim Panentheism History[show] Early Sefer Yetzirah Tannaim · Heichalot Medieval Bahir · Toledano tradition Chassidei Ashkenaz Prophetic Kabbalah · Zohar Kabbalistic commentaries on the Bible Mainstream replacement of philosophy with Kabbalah Rennaisance Selective influence on Western thought Mysticism after Spanish expulsion Mystics of 16th-century Safed Cordoveran Kabbalah Lurianic Kabbalah Judah Loew ben Bezalel Shnei Luchos HaBris Early modern Baal Shem-Nistarim Sabbatean mystical heresies Emden-Eybeschutz controversy Immigration to the Land of Israel Traditional Oriental Kabbalists Beit El Synagogue Eastern European Judaism Hasidic Judaism / philosophy Lithuanian Jews Hasidic-Mitnagdic schism Modern Hasidic dynasties · HaSulam Academic interest in Jewish mysticism Non-Orthodox interest in Jewish mysticism Practices[show] Torah study · Mitzvot · Minhag Customery immersion in Mikveh Meditation · Deveikut · Prayer Nusach · Kavanot Names of God · Tikkun Chatzot Tikkun Leil Shavuot · Teshuvah Asceticism · Pilgrimage to Tzadik Pilgrimage to holy grave Lag BaOmer at Meron Practical Kabbalah People[show] 100s Four Who Entered the Pardes Shimon bar Yochai 1100s Isaac the Blind · Azriel 1200s Nahmanides · Abraham Abulafia Joseph ben Abraham Gikatilla Moses de Leon Menahem Recanati 1300s Bahya ben Asher 1500s Meir ibn Gabbai · Joseph Karo Shlomo Alkabetz · Moshe Alshich Moshe Cordovero Isaac Luria · Chaim Vital Judah Loew ben Bezalel 1600s Isaiah Horowitz · Abraham Azulai 1700s Chaim ibn Attar · Baal Shem Tov Dov Ber of Mezeritch Moshe Chaim Luzzatto Shalom Sharabi · Vilna Gaon Chaim Joseph David Azulai Nathan Adler Schneur Zalman of Liadi Chaim Volozhin 1800s Nachman of Breslov Ben Ish Chai · Shlomo Eliyashiv 1900s Abraham Isaac Kook Yehuda Ashlag · Baba Sali Menachem Mendel Schneerson Role[show] History Torah · Tanakh · Prophecy Ruach HaKodesh Pardes exegesis Talmudical hermeneutics Midrash Jewish commentaries on the Bible Oral Torah Eras of Rabbinic Judaism Generational descent in Halacha Generational ascent in Kabbalah Rabbinic literature Talmudic theology Halakha · Aggadah · Hakira Classic Mussar literature Ashkenazi Judaism Sephardi Judaism Modern Jewish philosophies Jewish studies Topics God in Judaism Divine transcendence Divine immanence · Free will Divine providence Kabbalistic reasons for the 613 Mitzvot Jewish principles of faith Jewish eschatology v • d • e Kabbalistic mysticism attempted to establish a more exact relationship between Lilith and the Deity. With her major characteristics having been well-developed by the end of the Talmudic period, after six centuries had elapsed between the Aramaic incantation texts that mention Lilith and the early Spanish Kabbalistic writings in the 13th century, she reappears, and her life history becomes known in greater mythological detail.[82] Her creation is described in many alternative versions. One mentions her creation as being before Adam’s, on the fifth day, because the “living creatures” with whose swarms God filled the waters included none other than Lilith. A similar version, related to the earlier Talmudic passages, recounts how Lilith was fashioned with the same substance as Adam was, shortly before. A third alternative version states that God originally created Adam and Lilith in a manner that the female creature was contained in the male. Lilith’s soul was lodged in the depths of the Great Abyss. When God called her, she joined Adam. After Adam’s body was created a thousand souls from the Left (evil) side attempted to attach themselves to him. However, God drove them off. Adam was left lying as a body without a soul. Then a cloud descended and God commanded the earth to produce a living soul. This God breathed into Adam, who began to spring to life and his female was attached to his side. God separated the female from Adam’s side. The female side was Lilith, whereupon she flew to the Cities of the Sea and attacks humankind. Yet another version claims that Lilith was not created by God, but emerged as a divine entity that was born spontaneously, either out of the Great Supernal Abyss or out of the power of an aspect of God (the Gevurah of Din). This aspect of God, one of his ten attributes (Sefirot), at its lowest manifestation has an affinity with the realm of evil and it is out of this that Lilith merged with Samael.[83] According to The Alphabet of Ben-Sira Lilith was Adam’s first wife. An alternative story links Lilith with the creation of luminaries. The “first light,” which is the light of Mercy (one of the Sefirot), appeared on the first day of creation when God said “Let there be light.” This light became hidden and the Holiness became surrounded by a husk of evil. ”A husk (klippa) was created around the brain” and this husk spread and brought out another husk, which was Lilith.[84] [edit] Adam and Lilith Adam holding on to a child while Lilith appears on a tree. The first medieval source to depict Adam and Lilith in full was the Midrash Abkir (ca. 10th century), which was followed by the Zohar and Kabbalistic writings. Adam is said to be perfect until he recognizes either his sin or Cain’s fratricide that is the cause of bringing death into the world. He then separates from holy Eve, sleeps alone, and fasts for 130 years. During this time Lilith, also known as Pizna or Naamah, desired his beauty and came to him against his will. She bore him many demons and spirits called “the plagues of humankind”.[85] The added explanation was that it was through Adam’s own sin that Lilith overcame him against his will. “Lilith” from Michelangelo’s “The Temptation of Adam and Eve”. A common iconographic depiction of the serpent of Eden in late Medieval and Renaissance art. Older sources state clearly that after Lilith’s Red Sea sojourn, she returned to Adam and begat children from him. In the Zohar, however, Lilith is said to have succeeded in begetting offspring from Adam during their short-lived sexual experience. Lilith leaves Adam in Eden, as she is not a suitable helpmate for him. She returns, later, to force herself upon him. However, before doing so she attaches herself to Cain and bears him numerous spirits and demons.[85] [edit] Samael and Lilith The mystical writing of two brothers Jacob and Isaac Hacohen, which predates the Zohar by a few decades, states that Samael and Lilith are in the shape of an androgynous being, double-faced, born out of the emanation of the Throne of Glory and corresponding in the spiritual realm to Adam and Eve, who were likewise born as a hermaphrodite. The two twin androgynous couples resembled each other and both “were like the image of Above”; that is, that they are reproduced in a visible form of an androgynous deity.[86] Another version that was also current among Kabbalistic circles in the Middle Ages establishes Lilith as the first of Samael’s four wives: Lilith, Naamah, Igrath, and Mahalath. Each of them are mothers of demons and have their own hosts and unclean spirits in no number.[87] The marriage of archangel Samael and Lilith was arranged by “Blind Dragon”, who is the counterpart of “the dragon that is in the sea”. Blind Dragon acts as an intermediary between Lilith and Samael: Blind Dragon rides Lilith the Sinful — may she be extirpated quickly in our days, Amen! — And this Blind Dragon brings about the union between Samael and Lilith. And just as the Dragon that is in the sea (Isa. 27:1) has no eyes, likewise Blind Dragon that is above, in the likeness of a spiritual form, is without eyes, that is to say, without colors…. (Patai81:458) Samael is called the Slant Serpent, and Lilith is called the Tortuous Serpent.[88] The marriage of Samael and Lilith is known as the “Angel Satan” or the “Other God,” but it was not allowed to last. To prevent Lilith and Samael’s demonic children Lilin from filling the world, God castrated Samael. In many 17th century Kabbalistic books, this mythologem is based on the identification of “Leviathan the Slant Serpent and Leviathan the Torturous Serpent” and a reinterpretation of an old Talmudic myth where God castrated the male Leviathan and slew the female Leviathan in order to prevent them from mating and thereby destroying the earth.[89] After Samael became castrated and Lilith was unable to fornicate with him, she left him to couple with men who experience nocturnal emissions. A 15th or 16th century Kabbalah text states that God has “cooled” the female Leviathan, meaning that he has made Lilith infertile and she is a mere fornication. [edit] The Two Liliths A passage in the 13th century document called the Treatise on the Left Emanation says that there are two Liliths, the lesser being married to the great demon Asmodeus. In answer to your question concerning Lilith, I shall explain to you the essence of the matter. Concerning this point there is a received tradition from the ancient Sages who made use of the Secret Knowledge of the Lesser Palaces, which is the manipulation of demons and a ladder by which one ascends to the prophetic levels. In this tradition, it is made clear that Samael and Lilith were born as one, similar to the form of Adam and Eve who were also born as one, reflecting what is above. This is the account of Lilith which was received by the Sages in the Secret Knowledge of the Palaces. The Matron Lilith is the mate of Samael. Both of them were born at the same hour in the image of Adam and Eve, intertwined in each other. Asmodeus the great king of the demons has as a mate the Lesser (younger) Lilith, daughter of the king whose name is Qafsefoni. The name of his mate is Mehetabel daughter of Matred, and their daughter is Lilith.[90] Lilith tempting Eve into eating the forbidden fruit. 15th Century. Another passage charges Lilith as being a tempting serpent of Eve’s: And the Serpent, the Woman of Harlotry, incited and seduced Eve through the husks of Light which in itself is holiness. And the Serpent seduced Holy Eve, and enough said for him who understands. And all this ruination came about because Adam the first man coupled with Eve while she was in her menstrual impurity – this is the filth and the impure seed of the Serpent who mounted Eve before Adam mounted her. Behold, here it is before you: because of the sins of Adam the first man all the things mentioned came into being. For Evil Lilith, when she saw the greatness of his corruption, became strong in her husks, and came to Adam against his will, and became hot from him and bore him many demons and spirits and Lilin. (Patai81:455f) This may relate to various late medieval iconography of a female serpent figure, believed to be Lilith, tempting Adam and Eve.[91] The prophet Elijah is said to have confronted Lilith in one text. In this encounter, she had come to feast on the flesh of the mother, with a host of demons, and take the newborn from her. She eventually reveals her secret names to Elijah in the conclusion. These names are said to cause Lilith to lose her power: lilith, abitu, abizu, hakash, avers hikpodu, ayalu, matrota…[92] In others, probably informed by The Alphabet of Ben-Sira, she is Adam’s first wife. (Yalqut Reubeni, Zohar 1:34b, 3:19[93]) [edit] Lilith as Qliphah Adam, Lilith, and Eve, c. AD 1210, base of trumeau, left portal, West Façade, Notre Dame, Paris. Lilith is listed as one of the Qliphoth, corresponding to the Sephirah Malkuth in the Kabbalistic Tree of Life. The demon Lilith, the evil woman, is described as a beautiful woman, who transforms into a blue, butterfly-like demon, and it is associated with the power of seduction.[citation needed] The Qliphah is the unbalanced power of a Sephirah. Malkuth is the lowest Sephirah, the realm of the earth, into which all the divine energy flows, and in which the divine plan is worked out. However, its unbalanced form is as Lilith, the seductress. The material world, and all of its pleasures, is the ultimate seductress, and can lead to materialism unbalanced by the spirituality of the higher spheres. This ultimately leads to a descent into animal consciousness. The balance must therefore be found between Malkuth and Kether, to find order and harmony.[citation needed] [edit] Greco-Roman mythology Another similar monster was the Greek Lamia, who likewise governed a class of child stealing lamia-demons. Lamia bore the title “child killer” and was feared for her malevolence, like Lilith.[94] She has different conflicting origins and is described as having a human upper body from the waist up and a serpentine body from the waist down.[95](Some depictions of Lamia picture her as having wings and feet of a bird, rather than being half serpent, similar to the earlier reliefs of Greek Sirens and the Lilitu.) One source states simply that she is a daughter of the goddess Hecate. Another, that Lamia was subsequently cursed by the goddess Hera to have stillborn children because of her association with Zeus; alternately, Hera slew all of Lamia’s children (except Scylla) in anger that Lamia slept with her husband, Zeus. The grief caused Lamia to turn into a monster that took revenge on mothers by stealing their children and devouring them.[96] Lamia had a vicious sexual appetite that matched her cannibalistic appetite for children. She was notorious for being a vampiric spirit and loved sucking men’s blood.[97] Her gift was the “mark of a Sibyl,” a gift of second sight. Zeus was said to have given her the gift of sight. However, she was “cursed” to never be able to shut her eyes so that she would forever obsess over her dead children. Taking pity on Lamia, Zeus gave her the ability to remove and replace her eyes from their sockets.[96] The Empusae were a class of supernatural demons that Lamia was said to have birthed. Hecate would often send them against travelers. They consumed or scared to death any of the people where they inhabited. They bear many similarities to lilim. It has been suggested that later medieval lore, succubi, or lilim is derived from this myth.[citation needed] [edit] Arabic mythology Lilith Arabic: ليليث‎ is not found in the Quran or Haddith. The Sufi occult writer Ahmad al-Buni (d.1225) in his Shams al-Ma’arif al-Kubra (Sun of the Great Knowledge, Arabic: شمس المعارف الكبرى) mentions a demon called the mother of children a term also used “in one place”[98] in the 13th Century Jewish Zohar and is therefore probably derived from Jewish mythology. Another Islamic legend recounts an encounter between King Solomon and a giant woman demon, Karina.[99] [edit] Lilith in the Classical German period Lilith’s earliest appearance in the literature of the Romantic period (1789–1832) was in Goethe’s 1808 work Faust Part I, nearly 600 years after appearing in the Kabbalistic Zohar: Faust: Who’s that there? Mephistopheles: Take a good look. Lilith. Faust: Lilith? Who is that? Mephistopheles: Adam’s wife, his first. Beware of her. Her beauty’s one boast is her dangerous hair. When Lilith winds it tight around young men She doesn’t soon let go of them again. (1992 Greenberg translation, lines 4206–4211) After Mephistopheles offers this warning to Faust, he then, quite ironically, encourages Faust to dance with “the Pretty Witch”. Lilith and Faust engage in a short dialogue, where Lilith recounts the days spent in Eden. Faust: [dancing with the young witch] A lovely dream I dreamt one day I saw a green-leaved apple tree, Two apples swayed upon a stem, So tempting! I climbed up for them. The Pretty Witch: Ever since the days of Eden Apples have been man’s desire. How overjoyed I am to think, sir, Apples grow, too, in my garden. (1992 Greenberg translation, lines 4216 – 4223) [edit] Lilith in the Victorian period Lady Lilith by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which developed around 1848,[100] were greatly influenced by Goethe’s work on the theme of Lilith. In 1863, Dante Gabriel Rossetti of the Brotherhood began painting what would be his first rendition of “Lady Lilith”, a painting he expected to be his “best picture hitherto”[100] Symbols appearing in the painting allude to the “femme fatale” reputation of the Romantic Lilith: poppies (death and cold) and white roses (sterile passion). Accompanying his Lady Lilith painting from 1863, Rossetti wrote a sonnet entitled Lilith, which was first published in Swinburne’s pamphlet-review (1868), Notes on the Royal Academy Exhibition: Of Adam’s first wife, Lilith, it is told (The witch he loved before the gift of Eve,) That, ere the snake’s, her sweet tongue could deceive, And her enchanted hair was the first gold. And still she sits, young while the earth is old, And, subtly of herself contemplative, Draws men to watch the bright web she can weave, Till heart and body and life are in its hold. The rose and poppy are her flower; for where Is he not found, O Lilith, whom shed scent And soft-shed kisses and soft sleep shall snare? Lo! As that youth’s eyes burned at thine, so went Thy spell through him, and left his straight neck bent And round his heart one strangling golden hair. (Collected Works, 216) The poem and the picture appeared together alongside Rossetti’s painting Sibylla Palmifera and the sonnet Soul’s Beauty. In 1881, the Lilith sonnet was renamed “Body’s Beauty” in order to contrast it and Soul’s Beauty. The two were placed sequentially in The House of Life collection (sonnets number 77 and 78).[100] Rossetti wrote in 1870: Lady [Lilith]…represents a Modern Lilith combing out her abundant golden hair and gazing on herself in the glass with that self-absorption by whose strange fascination such natures draw others within their own circle.” —Rossetti, W. M. ii.850, D.G. Rossetti’s emphasis[100] This is in accordance with Jewish folk tradition, which associates Lilith both with long hair (a symbol of dangerous feminine seductive power in both Jewish and Islamic cultures), and with possessing women by entering them through mirrors.[101] The Victorian poet Robert Browning re-envisioned Lilith in his poem “Adam, Lilith, and Eve”. First published in 1883, the poem uses the traditional myths surrounding the triad of Adam, Eve, and Lilith. Browning depicts Lilith and Eve as being friendly and complicitous with each other, as they sit together on either side of Adam. Under the threat of death, Eve admits that she never loved Adam, while Lilith confesses that she always loved him: As the worst of the venom left my lips, I thought, ‘If, despite this lie, he strips The mask from my soul with a kiss — I crawl His slave, — soul, body, and all! —Browning 1098 Browning focused on Lilith’s emotional attributes, rather than that of her ancient demon predecessors.[102] Scottish author George MacDonald also wrote a fantasy novel entitled Lilith, first published in 1895. MacDonald employed the character of Lilith in service to a spiritual allegory about sin and redemption[citation needed]. Many of the traditional characteristics of Lilith mythology are present in the author’s depiction: Long dark hair, pale skin, a hatred and fear of children and babies, and an obsession with gazing at herself in a mirror. MacDonald’s Lilith also has vampiric qualities: She bites people and sucks their blood for sustenance. [edit] In modern occultism The depiction of Lilith in Romanticism continues to be popular among Wiccans, feminists and in other modern occultism.[100] [edit] Ceremonial magic Few magical orders dedicated to the undercurrent of Lilith, featuring initiations specifically related to the arcana of the “first mother” exist. Two organizations that use initiations and magic associated with Lilith are the Ordo Antichristianus Illuminati and the Order of Phosphorus. Lilith appears as a succuba in Aleister Crowley’s De Arte Magica. Lilith was also one of the middle names of Crowley’s first child, Nuit Ma Ahathoor Hecate Sappho Jezebel Lilith Crowley (b. 1904, d.1906), and Lilith is sometimes identified with Babalon in Thelemic writings. A Chaos Magical rite, based on an earlier German rite,[103] offers a ceremonial Invocation of Lilith:[104] Dark is she, but brilliant! Black are her wings, black on black! Her lips are red as rose, kissing all of the Universe! She is Lilith, who leadeth forth the hordes of the Abyss, and leadeth man to liberation! She is the irresistible fulfiller of all lust, seer of desire. First of all women was she – Lilith, not Eve was the first! Her hand brings forth the revolution of the Will and true freedom of the mind! She is KI-SI-KIL-LIL-LA-KE, Queen of the Magic! Look on her in lust and despair!” —Lilith Ritus, from the German by Joseph Max A 2006 “creative occultist” work by ceremonial magickian Donald Tyson, titled Liber Lilith, details the “secret” cosmology for the ‘Mother of Harlots’ and spawn of all nightbreed monsters, Lilith.[105] The book claims to have been saved from the ashes of Dr John Dee’s library at Mortlake in the 1580s, but no evidence that this book existed before the 21st century can be found.[106] Tyson himself states that while the grimoire itself is esoterically sound, the historical details surrounding it are a “fictional wrapper”[105] created in order to make the book more interesting. [edit] Modern Luciferianism In modern Luciferianism, Lilith is considered a consort of Lucifer and is identified with the figure of Babalon. She is said to come from the mud and dust, and is known as the Queen of the Succubi. When she and Lucifer mate, they form an androgynous being called “Baphomet” or the “Goat of Mendes,” also known in Luciferianism as the “God of Witches.”[107][not in citation given] Writings by Michael W. Ford, including The Foundations of the Luciferian Path, contend that Lilith forms a part of the “Luciferian Trinity” consisting of herself, Samael and Cain. Likewise, Lilith is said to have been Cain’s actual mother, as opposed to Eve. Lilith here is seen as a goddess of witches, the dark feminine principle, and is also known as the goddess Hecate.[108] [edit] Wicca Many early writers that contributed to modern day Wicca expressed special reverence for Lilith. Charles Leland associated Aradia with Lilith: Aradia, says Leland, is Herodias, who was regarded in stregheria folklore as being associated with Diana as chief of the witches. Leland further notes that Herodias is a name that comes from West Asia, where it denoted an early form of Lilith.[109][110] Gerald Gardner asserted that there was continuous historical worship of Lilith to present day, and that her name is sometimes given to the goddess being personified in the coven, by the priestess. This idea was further attested by Doreen Valiente, who cited her as a presiding goddess of the Craft: “the personification of erotic dreams, the suppressed desire for delights”.[111] In some contemporary concepts, Lilith is viewed as the embodiment of the Goddess, a designation that is thought to be shared with what these faiths believe to be her counterparts: Inanna, Ishtar, Asherah, Anath and Isis.[112] According to one view, Lilith was originally a Sumerian, Babylonian, or Hebrew mother goddess of childbirth, children, women, and sexuality[113][114][115] who later became demonized due to the rise of patriarchy.[116] Other modern views hold that Lilith is a dark moon goddess on par with the Hindu Kali.[117] [edit] Astrology See also: Lilith (hypothetical moon) In modern Western astrology, “Dark Moon” Lilith, is not an actual phase of the moon, but is the empty focus of the ellipse described by the moon’s orbit (the other focus occupied by the Earth). Dark Moon Lilith is often employed in astrological chart readings. “The Dark Moon describes our relationship to the absolute, to sacrifice as such, and shows how we let go.”[118] The moon’s hypothetical apogee point (the point at which it is furthest in its orbit from the Earth), is known as “Black Moon” Lilith. It is said to signify instinctive and emotional intelligence in astrological charts.[119] The asteroid 1181 Lilith is also sometimes used in astrology.[120] [edit] Western mystery tradition The western mystery tradition associates Lilith with the Klipoth of kabbalah. Samael Aun Weor in The Pistis Sophia Unveiled writes that homosexuals are the “henchmen of Lilith.” Likewise, women who undergo willful abortion, and those who support this practice are “seen in the sphere of Lilith.”[121] Dion Fortune writes, “The Virgin Mary is reflected in Lilith,” [122] and that Lilith is the source of “lustful dreams.”[122] Indeed, if one meditates on negative (or inverted) Binah, one readily finds Lilith; to worship Lilith is to use the power of the Holy Spirit for negative purposes.[123] [edit] Feminist Theology In a paper on the subject of feminist theology, Deborah J. Grenn, of the Kohenet Hebrew Priestess Institute, has argued that Lilith was a mother goddess whose demonization was designed to keep women alienated from their own ‘original sources’ of power and spiritual authority. The case is argued for “a reinterpretation of the divine as embodied by the Semitic goddess Lilith, she who has been represented and misrepresented in a variety of sacred texts”.[124] [edit] Popular culture See also: Lilith (disambiguation) * 19-20th century Armenian writer Avetik Isahakyan wrote a story entitled “Lilit”. * Lilith is the name of two fictional American comic book characters owned by Marvel Comics. Both characters exist in the Marvel Universe. The first is a superheroine, daughter of Dracula and, like him, a vampire, although her powers and weaknesses differ from most other vampires. The second is an evil demon sorceress. * In Diablo II: Lord of Destruction Lilith is a demon whom players have to defeat in order to gain access to Tristram. Known as the “Mother of All Demons”, she gives birth to demons called the Lilin which have lives of their own, but always remain obedient to their mother. * Lilith Clay is a young superheroine who occasionally appears in DC Comic’s Teen Titans titles. * In the show Supernatural (TV Series) she is the first demon that Lucifer created after his outcast from heaven to mock the humans. She holds the deals of humans and then breaks seals through out the fourth season. She is killed at the end of the fourth season to break the final seal that sets Lucifer free. * In April 2010, British extreme metal band Cradle of Filth announced their new concept album, Darkly Darkly Venus Aversa, to be “based on Adam’s first wife, the lascivious Demoness Lilith”.[125] * Lilith is the ranking demon of Satan in the Incarnations of Immortality series by Piers Anthony, though she goes by many similar names. She is used to help try to corrupt many of the Incarnations, until she falls in love with the Incarnation of War and deserts Satan for him. * Lilith Sternin is a supporting character played by Bebe Neuwirth on the American sitcom Cheers, and the spin-off Frasier, as the wife then ex-wife of Frasier Crane. * In The Chronicles of Narnia, Jadis (the White Witch) is a descendant of Lilith. * An episode of The Naked Archaeologist dealt with Lilith and her origins. * In the fictional Nightside bookseries by Simon R. Green, Lilith plays a great role. Not only did she create the location the books take place (the Nightside), but she also is the mother of the protagonist of the story. [edit] See also * Succubus * Spirit spouse (in dreams) * Serpent seed * Daemon (mythology) * Naamah (demon) * Norea * Lamashtu * Pazuzu * Lamia (mythology) * Abyzou * 1181 Lilith (main-belt asteroid) * Lilith (hypothetical moon) * Lilith Fair [edit] Notes 1. ^ Freedman, David Noel, ed., Anchor Bible Dictionary, (New York: Doubleday) 1997, 1992. 2. ^ Kristen E. Kvam, Linda S. Schearing, Valarie H. Ziegler Eve and Adam: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim readings on Genesis and gender Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.p174 3. ^ Tree of souls: the mythology of Judaism, By Howard Schwartz, page 218 4. ^ unsigned unsourced webpage re Kabbalah on Samael & Lilith 5. ^ Erich Ebeling, Bruno Meissner, Dietz Otto Edzard Reallexikon der Assyriologie Volume 9 p47,50 6. ^ Michael C. Astour Hellenosemitica: an ethnic and cultural study in west Semitic impact on Mycenaean. Greece 1965 Brill p138 7. ^ Sayce (1887)[page needed] 8. ^ Fossey (1902)[page needed] 9. ^ Kramer, S. N. Gilgamesh and the Huluppu-Tree: A Reconstructed Sumerian Text. Assyriological Studies 10. Chicago. 1938 10. ^ George, A. The epic of Gilgamesh: the Babylonian epic poem and other texts in Akkadian 2003 p100 Tablet XII. Appendix The last Tablet in the ‘Series of Gilgamesh’ 11. ^ Kramer translates the zu as “owl,” but most often it is translated as “eagle,” “vulture,” or “bird of prey.” 12. ^ “Inanna and the Huluppu Tree”: One Way of Demoting a Great Goddess by Johanna Stuckey 13. ^ Chicago Assyrian Dictionary 1956. Chicago: University of Chicago. 14. ^ Hurwitz (1980) p. 49 15. ^ Article in K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst – 1999 p520-521, article cites Hutter’s own 1988 work Behexung, Entsuhnung und Heilung Eisenbrauns 1988. p224-228 16. ^ Roberta Sterman Sabbath Sacred tropes: Tanakh, New Testament, and Qur’an as literature and culture 2009 17. ^ Sex and gender in the ancient Near East: proceedings of the 47th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Helsinki, July 2–6, 2001, Part 2 p481 18. ^ Opitz, D. Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen Ur. AfO 8: 328 19. ^ Ribichini, S. Lilith nell-albero Huluppu Pp. 25 in Atti del 1° Convegno Italiano sul Vicino Oriente Antico, Rome, 1976 20. ^ Frankfort, H. The Burney Relief AfO 12: 128, 1937 21. ^ Kraeling, E. G. A Unique Babylonian Relief BASOR 67: 168. 1937 22. ^ RLA 7:25 23. ^ Gaster, T. H. 1942. A Canaanite Magical Text. Or 11: 24. ^ Torczyner, H. 1947. A Hebrew Incantation against Night-Demons from Biblical Times. JNES 6: 18?9. 25. ^ Lesses, Rebecca Exe(o)rcising Power: Women as Sorceresses, Exorcists, and Demonesses in Babylonian Jewish Society of Late Antiquity 2001 JAAR Journal of The American Academy of Religion Abstact p.343-375 26. ^ Georges Contenau La Magie chez les Assyriens et les Babyloniens, Paris, 1947. 27. ^ Georges Contenau Everyday Life in Babylon and Assyria translated by KR Maxwell-Hyslop and AR Maxwell-Hyslop (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1954) 28. ^ Fauth, Wolfgang (1982) Lilitu und die Eulen von Pylos. In Tischler, Johann. (ed.). Serta Indogermanica: Festschrift für Günter Neumann zum 60. Geburtstag. p60-61 29. ^ S. Lackenbacher, RA 65 (1971) 30. ^ Graham Cunningham Deliver me from evil: Mesopotamian incantations, 2500-1500 BC 1997 p104 31. ^ Alan Humm’s Lilith Bibliography from the Ioudaios academic list expanded from the bibliography of Thomas R. W. Longstaff 32. ^ “Beiträge zur vergleichende Sagen- und Märchenkunde. X. Lilith und die drei Angel”, Monatschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenstum 29 (1880) – to be distinguished from Gaster, Theodor Herzl. “A Canaanite Magical Text.” Orientalia, 11. Rome: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1942. Pp. 41-79. 33. ^ Semitic Magic – Its Origins and Development 34. ^ Hebrew Religion: Its Origin and Development (1930)Page 70 35. ^ Hurwitz (1980)p.54,55 36. ^ a b Deutscher, Guy (2007). Syntactic Change in Akkadian: The Evolution of Sentential Complementation. Oxford University Press US. pp. 20–21. ISBN 9780199532223. 37. ^ Bottero (2001:45) 38. ^ Hurwitz (1980) p.51-52 39. ^ a b Hurwitz (1980) p.50 40. ^ Patai (1942)[page needed] 41. ^ a b Hurwitz (1980) p.52 42. ^ a b Raphael Patai[page needed] 43. ^ T.H. Jacobsen, “Mesopotamia”, in H. Frankfort et al., Before Philosophy: The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man. 44. ^ R.C. Thompson 1908 p.66 45. ^ Hurwitz (1980) p.75 46. ^ Goddesses and Demons: Some Thoughts by Johanna Stuckey 47. ^ Black, Jeremy and Anthony Green. Gods, Demons, and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press 2003. p. 118 48. ^ Erich Ebeling and Bruno Meissner, Reallexicon der Assyriologie, Walter de Gruyter 1990[page needed] 49. ^ Hurwitz (1980) p.51 50. ^ Raphael Patai p.222 51. ^ Raphael Patai, p. 221 & 222, The Hebrew Goddess: Third Enlarged Edition, ISBN 978-0-8143-2271-0 52. ^ Hurwitz (1980) p.34-35 53. ^ Lamaštu (Lamashtu) 54. ^ Britannica, s.v. “Lamashtu” 55. ^ Margi B. Lilith 56. ^ Hurwitz (1980) p.39 But this ref gives no source. 57. ^ Hurwitz (1980) p.40 58. ^ Hurwitz (1980) p.41 59. ^ Tammuz and Ishtar: a monograph upon Babylonian religion p74,75 60. ^ S.H. Langdon p.74 Stephen Herbert Langdon, The Mythology of All Races, Volume V: Semitic, ed. John Arnott MacCulloch New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1964 61. ^ Hurwitz (1980) p.58 62. ^ (מנוח manowach, used for birds as Noah’s dove, Gen.8:9 and also humans as Israel, Deut.28:65; Naomi, Ruth 3:1). 63. ^ Jahrbuch für Protestantische Theologie 1, 1875. p128 64. ^ Levy, [Moritz] A.[braham] (1817-1872). Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft ZDMG 9. 1885 p470,484 65. ^ Judit M. Blair De-Demonising the Old Testament – An Investigation of Azazel, Lilith, Deber, Qeteb and Reshef in the Hebrew Bible. Forschungen zum Alten Testament 2 Reihe, Mohr Siebeck 2009 ISBN 3-16-150131-4 66. ^ 34:14 καὶ συναντήσουσιν δαιμόνια ὀνοκενταύροις καὶ βοήσουσιν ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον ἐκεῖ ἀναπαύσονται ὀνοκένταυροι εὗρον γὰρ αὑτοῖς ἀνάπαυσιν 67. ^ “The Old Testament (Vulgate)/Isaias propheta”. Wikisource (Latin). Retrieved 2007-09-24. 68. ^ “Parallel Latin Vulgate Bible and Douay-Rheims Bible and King James Bible; The Complete Sayings of Jesus Christ”. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 69. ^ Summers, Montague (1928). Vampire: His Kith and Kin. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 356. ISBN 978-0766176034. 70. ^ Baumgarten, J. M. ‘On the Nature of the Seductress in 4Q184’, Revue de Qumran 15 (1991-92), 133-143; ‘The seductress of Qumran’, Bible Review 17 no 5 (2001), 21-23; 42; 71. ^ Hurwitz p. 53-54 72. ^ Leick 1998: 30-31 73. ^ Hurwitx p. 54-55 74. ^ Hurwitz p. 54 75. ^ Alphabet of Ben Sirah, Question #5 (23a-b) 76. ^ Humm, Alan. Lilith in the Alphabet of Ben Sira 77. ^ Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, p. 174 78. ^ Segal, Eliezer. Looking for Lilith 79. ^ Schwartz p.7 80. ^ Schwartz p 8 81. ^ a b c Schwartz p.8 82. ^ Patai p.229-230 83. ^ Patai p.230 84. ^ Patai p231 85. ^ a b Patai p232 86. ^ Patai p.231 87. ^ Patai p244 88. ^ Humm, Alan. Lilith, Samael, & Blind Dragon 89. ^ Pataip246 90. ^ R. Isaac b. Jacob Ha-Kohen. Lilith in Jewish Mysticism: Treatise on the Left Emanation 91. ^ Humm, Alan. Lilith picture: with Adam & Eve 92. ^ Lilith Amulet-J.R. Ritman Library 93. ^ Humm, Alan. Kabbalah: Lilith’s origins 94. ^ The Lilith Myth 95. ^ Hurwitz p. 43 96. ^ a b Hurwitz p.43 97. ^ Hurwitz p.78 98. ^ “an eine Stelle” Hurwitz S. Die erste Eva: Eine historische und psychologische Studie 2004 Page 160 “8) Lilith in der arabischen Literatur: Die Karina Auch in der arabischen Literatur hat der Lilith-Mythos seinen Niederschlag gefunden.” 99. ^ Jan Knappert Islamic legends: histories of the heroes, saints, and prophets of Islam, Volume 1. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1985. ” “And I am Salmas al-Hamma, the Karina of all women”. In spite of his great power, King Solomon felt uneasy when he heard this name. A karina is a female demon much feared by women in the Middle East.” p.149 100. ^ a b c d e The Feminism and Women’s Studies site: Changing Literary Representations of Lilith and the Evolution of a Mythical Heroine 101. ^ “Lilith’s Cave,” Lilith’s Cave: Jewish tales of the supernatural, edited by Howard Schwartz (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988) [1] 102. ^ Seidel, Kathryn Lee. The Lilith Figure in Toni Morrison’s Sula and Alice Walker’s The Color Purple 103. ^ Lilith-Ritus 104. ^ The Invocation of Lilith 105. ^ a b Tyson, Donald.LIBER LILITH:A Gnostic Grimoire 106. ^ Barbelith Underground 107. ^ Stills, Robert. Church of Lucifer 108. ^ Ford, Michael. Black Witchcraft: The Foundations of the Luciferian Path 109. ^ Grimassi, Raven.Stregheria: La Vecchia Religione 110. ^ Leland, Charles.Aradia, Gospel of the Witches-aAppendix 111. ^ Lilith-The First Eve/Published at Imbolc 2002 112. ^ Grenn, Deborah J.History of Lilith Institute 113. ^ source?] 114. ^ Hurwitz,Siegmund Excerpts from Lilith-The first Eve 115. ^ 116. ^ Koltuv 117. ^ R. Buckland 118. ^ Joëlle de Gravelaine in “Lilith und das Loslassen”, Astrologie Heute, Nr. 23. 119. ^ Margi B. The Angelic Influence[unreliable source?] 120. ^ Martha Lang-Wescott 121. ^ Pistis Sophia Unveiled by Samael Aun Weor, page 339, at Google books 122. ^ a b Psychic Self-Defence by Dion Fortune, page 126-128, at Google books 123. ^ Gnostic teaching’s course on Kabbalah: Klipoth 124. ^ Kohenet Deborah J. Grenn. Lilith’s Fire: Examining Original Sources of Power Re-defining Sacred Texts as Transformative Theological Practice. Retrieved 2010-04-23. 125. ^ CRADLE OF FILTH Signs With PEACEVILLE RECORDS – Apr. 28, 2010 [edit] References * Talmudic References: b. Erubin 18b; b. Erubin 100b; b. Nidda 24b; b. Shab. 151b; b. Baba Bathra 73a-b * Kabbalist References: Zohar 3:76b-77a; Zohar Sitrei Torah 1:147b-148b; Zohar 2:267b; Bacharach,’Emeq haMelekh, 19c; Zohar 3:19a; Bacharach,’Emeq haMelekh, 102d-103a; Zohar 1:54b-55a * Dead Sea Scroll References: 4QSongs of the Sage/4QShir; 4Q510 frag.11.4-6a//frag.10.1f; 11QPsAp * Lilith Bibliography, Jewish and Christian Literature, Alan Humm ed., 6 October 2010. * Raymond Buckland, The Witch Book, Visible Ink Press, November 1, 2001. * C. Fossey, La Magie Assyrienne, Paris: 1902. * Siegmund Hurwitz, Lilith, die erste Eva: eine Studie uber dunkle Aspekte des Wieblichen. Zurich: Daimon Verlag, 1980, 1993. English tr. Lilith, the First Eve: Historical and Psychological Aspects of the Dark Feminine, translated by Gela Jacobson. Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon Verlag, 1992 ISBN 3-85630-545-9. * Siegmund Hurwitz, Lilith Switzerland: Daminon Press, 1992. Jerusalem Bible. New York: Doubleday, 1966. * Samuel Noah Kramer, Gilgamesh and the Huluppu-Tree: A reconstructed Sumerian Text. (Kramer’s Translation of the Gilgamesh Prologue), Assyriological Studies of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 10, Chicago: 1938. * Raphael Patai, Adam ve-Adama, tr. as Man and Earth; Jerusalem: The Hebrew Press Association, 1941-1942. * Raphael Patai, The Hebrew Goddess, 3rd enlarged edition New York: Discus Books, 1978. * Archibald Sayce, Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion 1887. * Howard Schwartz, Lilith’s Cave: Jewish tales of the supernatural, San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988. * R.C. Thompson, Semitic Magic, it’s Origin and Development, London: 1908. 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